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By M. Kayor. Winthrop University.

Specific physiological changes that have been documented include improved connective tissue pliability and mobility aleve 250mg online, increased joint mobility, improved circulation, enhanced immune system function and reduction in 1 stress hormones. Massage is thought to help restore pliability in connective tissues damaged by trauma or disease by softening fibrous adhesions and encouraging new 20 tissues to be established in more appropriate ways. Massage appears to increase joint motion by relaxing muscles and other soft tissues surrounding the joint. For example, 21 Nordschow and Bierman found that healthy adults who received one massage focused on their back and legs were subsequently able to move their fingertips 1. Massage therapy 119 Circulatory effects Changes in the circulatory system reported after massage have been found in some 22 23 studies, but not others. For example, Bell and Hovind and Nielson, but not Shoemaker 24 and colleagues reported increased blood flow in the massaged region of the body. Sabri and colleagues found that deep vein thrombosis was reduced in 82% of massaged limbs compared with non-massaged limbs. Immune effects A variety of changes in the immune system have been reported following massage, 29–31 including increased lymphatic flow, increased concentration of salivary 32,33 immunoglobulin A, increased numbers of natural killer (NK) cells, NK cytotoxicity, 34 soluble CD8, the cytotoxic subset of CD8 cells in HIV-positive men and increased 35 numbers of lymphocyte markers and NK cells in women with breast cancer. Hormonal and other chemical changes Animal studies have reported that touch (handling) increases the production of growth hormone and decreases the production of cortisol (stress hormone) in young rats 18 18 (reviewed by Field ). Additional documented physiological changes that occur in humans after specific types of massage 36 37 include increased serotonin and dopamine levels, increased endorphin production, 38 decreased blood glucose levels in diabetic children and improved pulmonary function in 39 asthmatic children. In several studies, Field and colleagues have documented both psychological and physiological changes, including improved mood, decreased anxiety and reduced levels of stress hormones (cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine). These changes occurred after a series of eight to ten bi-weekly massages in people with a 40 variety of conditions including posttraumatic stress in children, depression in children, 41,42 43 44 45 adolescents and the elderly, eating disorders, chronic fatigue, and fibromyalgia. Musculoskeletal effects Although massage is most often used to treat musculoskeletal conditions, there have been relatively few clinical trials evaluating massage for these problems. Massage and 46 manipulation are widely used for osteoarthritis and, although one literature review reported a favorable opinion, their effectiveness has not been investigated in controlled trials.

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A National Institutes of Health • nettle () extract: heavy bleeding (NIH) panel concluded that acupuncture may be a use- ful treatment for menstrual cramps aleve 500mg sale. Massage with the rose, ylang-ylang, bergamot, and/or geranium oils for mood • raspberry tea: cramps, irregular cycles, heavy bleeding, swings;, sandalwood, and clary oils for or bleeding in between cycles menstrual cramps; and chamomile, cypress, melissa, • red clover (): phytoestrogen source lavender, and jasmine oils for irregular menstruation or amenorrhea. Regular, moderate aerobic exercise reduces • valerian (): mood swings and ten- or eliminates menstrual pain, improves PMS, reduces sion the amount of menstrual bleeding, reduces the risk for • vitex: PMS symptoms endometriosis, and reduces cyclic breast pain and cysts. Homeopathic remedies include: • yarrow (): cramps or for PMS, cimicifuga, colocynthis, or magnesia phosphorica for cramps, and or aconitum for irregular menstruation or amenorrhea. Soaking in a hot tub or using a moist problems: heating pad relaxes uterine muscles which relieves • deficiency may be associated with PMS cramping. Ear, hand, and foot reflexology led to a significant decrease in PMS symptoms that lasted for • pidolate supplementation reduced dys- several months following treatment. In four small studies using TENS for the treatment of dys- • Niacin may help to relieve cramps menorrhea, 42%–60% of the patients experienced at • deficiency is associated with dys- least moderate relief of symptoms. TENS worked faster menorrhea pain (in one small study, patients taking than naproxen and there was less need for NSAIDs. Naproxen (Aleve) reduces excessive blood —The chemical amygdalin, obtained from apricots, peaches, and bitter almonds. Iscador is an extract of the Eu- ropean mistletoe plant that is said to stimulate the im- mune system and kill cells. A German study published in 2002 indicates that Iscador does in- deed inhibit tumor growth. Another recent German case study of an 80-year-old woman with metastasized documented that the patient lived for 41 months after first being given Iscador, with good quality of life. Iscador is one brand name of the mistletoe extract in Eu- rope, and other brand names include Helixor and Eurixor. Other contemporary uses of mistletoe include treat- ment of rheumatism,, migraine headaches,, high blood pressure, relief of spasms,, rapid heartbeat,, hysteria, and amenorrhea. American mistletoe is said to cause a rise in blood pres- sure, while its European counterpart is believed to lower blood pressure.

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The type of drugs buy 250mg aleve mastercard, the 1280 GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2 method of giving them, and the length of the treatment Malaria is an especially difficult disease to prevent depend on where the malaria was contracted and the by vaccination because the parasite goes through several severity of the patientís illness. One recent, promising vaccine appears to have protected up to 60% of people exposed to malaria. For all strains except falciparum, the treatment for This was evident during field trials for the drug that were malaria is usually chloroquine (Aralen) by mouth for conducted in South America and Africa. In countries where The World Health Organization has been trying to quinine resistance is developing, other treatments may eliminate malaria for the past 30 years by controlling include clindamycin (Cleocin), mefloquin (Lariam), or mosquitoes. Their efforts were successful as long as the sulfadoxone/pyrimethamine (Fansidar). Most patients re- pesticide DDT killed mosquitoes and antimalarial drugs ceive an antibiotic for seven days. Today, however, the may need intensive care and intravenous (IV) malaria problem has returned a hundredfold, especially in Africa. Because both the mosquito and parasite are now ex- A patient with falciparum malaria needs to be hospi- tremely resistant to the insecticides designed to kill talized and given antimalarial drugs in different combi- them, governments are now trying to teach people to nations and doses depending on the resistance of the take antimalarial drugs as a preventive medicine and strain. The patient may need IV fluids, red blood cell avoid getting bitten by mosquitoes. Travelers to high-risk areas should use insect repel- A drug called primaquine may prevent relapses after lant containing DEET for exposed skin. These relapses are is toxic in large amounts, children should not use a con- caused by a form of the parasite that remains in the liver centration higher than 35%. While it is licensed in the United States, it is not market- ed in this country and it is not recommended by the Cen- Those who use the following preventive measures ters for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta. Those who live in areas where malaria is epidemic, how- • Sleep inside pyrethrin or permethrin repellent-soaked ever, can contract the disease repeatedly, never fully re- mosquito nets.