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Although they have some appeal buy lady era 100mg on-line, kinematic measurements either have not yielded re- ANTHROPOMETRY, DISPLACEMENTS, & GROUND REACTION FORCES 17 sults to a satisfactory degree of accuracy or require too much time (Jensen, 1986). Anthropometry What is needed for estimating body segment parameters is a technique with the following features: Personalised for individuals Short time required to take measurements Inexpensive and safe Reasonably accurate We can describe a technique that we believe meets these criteria. Calf circumference Malleolus width Malleolus height Foot breadth Foot length There are 20 measurements that need to be taken 9 for each side of the body, plus the subjects total body mass, and the distance between the anterior superior iliac spines (ASIS). With experience, these measurements can be made in less than 10 minutes using standard tape measures and beam calipers, which are readily available. They describe, in some detail, the characteristics of the subjects lower extremities. The question to be answered in this: Can they be used to predict body segment parameters that are specific to the indi- vidual subject and reasonably accurate? As mentioned earlier, most of the regression equations based on cadaver data use only total body mass to predict individual segment masses. Although this will obviously provide a reasonable estimate as a first approximation, it does not take into account the variation in the shape of the individual seg- ments. Prediction of Segment Mass We believe that individual segment masses are related not only to the subjects total body mass, but also to the dimensions of the segment of interest. Spe- cifically, because mass is equal to density times volume, the segment mass should be related to a composite parameter which has the dimensions of length cubed and depends on the volume of the segment. Expressed mathematically, we are seeking a multiple linear regression equation for predicting segment mass which has the form Segment mass = C1(Total body mass) + C2 (Length) + C33 (3. For our purposes, the shapes of the thigh and calf are represented by cylinders, and the shape of the foot is similar to a right pyramid. We based our regression equations on six cadavers studied by Chandler, Clauser, McConville, Reynolds, and Young (1975). Although we would ideally prefer to have had more cadavers, these are the only data in the literature that are so complete. Prediction of Segment Moments of Inertia As mentioned previously, the moment of inertia, which is a measure of a bodys resistance to angular motion, has units of kgm.
To tackle this question buy lady era 100mg with mastercard, we need to look at the matrix of factor loadings shown in Table 4. Both lateral and medial hamstrings as well as tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus load highly on the first factor. Thus, this factor can be thought of as describing the activity of those muscles whose peak EMG signal occurs within 5% of heel strike (i. The second factor describes the activity of the triceps surae and peroneus longus muscles, which are most MUSCLE ACTIONS REVEALED THROUGH ELECTROMYOGRAPHY 60 active during mid- and terminal stance. Muscles that load highly on the third factor are gluteus medius, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, and possibly gluteus maximus. The similarity be- tween these muscles is that they have peak activity levels at about 10% of the gait cycle, and, excepting the first, all have a slight, second burst just after toe-off. These muscles can be thought of as predominantly hip and thigh stabilisers, and this factor is therefore referred to as the loading response factor. Lastly, with regard to the fourth factor, it is apparent that sartorius, adductor longus, and possibly erector spinae are correlated. The similarity between these three muscles may be difficult to imagine, but by referring to Figure 4. It is important to point out here that the heel strike factor is the most important, in the sense that it accounts for most of the variance, whereas the biphasic factor is the least important. Remember that by combining these four graphs, most of the trends in the 16 EMG traces can be described. It is interesting to compare these results with those of Patla (1985) who suggested that just four basic features were required to synthesise seven muscular activity patterns within various conditions of speed and stride length. Wootten, Kadaba, and Cochran (1990a, 1990b) represented the linear envelope signals of 10 different muscles using a principal component analysis. They found that between 3 and 5 features (or components) were necessary to represent, and thereby reconstruct, the individual muscle patterns. Their purpose, however, was other than finding the relationship between different muscle groups (as we have explored in this chapter).
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